Late adulthood developmental stages physical cognitive and socioemotional changes - Early Adulthood Development
Physical Changes. Late adulthood is the stage of life from the 60s onward; it constitutes the last stage of physical change. Average life expectancy in the United States is around 80 years; however, this varies greatly based on factors such as socioeconomic status, region, and access to medical care.
People typically reach the peak of their physical strength and English coursework answers during their twenties and then gradually decline.
In later adulthood, a variety of physiological changes may occur, including some degree of atrophy of the brain and a decrease in the rate of neural processes.
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The respiratory and circulatory systems are less efficient, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract may lead to increased constipation. Bone mass diminishes, especially among women, leading to bone density disorders such as osteoporosis. Muscles become weaker unless exercise programs are followed. The skin dries and becomes less flexible. Hair loss occurs in both sexes.
There is also decreased sensitivity in all of the sensory modalities, including olfaction, taste, touch, hearing, and vision. The study of cognitive changes in the older population is complex.
Physical Development: Age 65+
Intellectual changes in late adulthood do not always result in reduction of ability. While fluid intelligence the ability to see and to use patterns and relationships to solve problems does decline in later years, crystallized intelligence the ability to use accumulated information to solve problems and make decisions has Julius caesar conspiring against caesar essay shown to rise slightly over the entire life span.
Dementias are usually responsible for cognitive defects seen in older people. Young adults are able to assimilate and synthesize complex and contradictory situations and arguments, and unlike adolescents, aren't set on finding absolute truths.
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They are focused on developing their careers and achieving independence from their families - a crucial requirement for balanced, well functioning adults. Theorist Erik Erikson maintained that individuals develop in psychosocial stages, and that early adulthood marks the time when individuals seek to form intimate relationships. And Sigmund Freud argued that a healthy adult is one who can "love and work. Intimacy can be actualized through close friendships, romantic relationships, starting a family, or all three.
Erickson argued that a firm sense of identity, gained in earlier developmental stages, was integral to entering intimate relationships, and research has supported this argument.
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Studies repeatedly find that those lacking a strong sense of identity have developmental satisfactory relationships, and they tend to be more emotionally isolated, lonely and depressed. And stage is a adulthood concern for individuals in their 20s to mid-thirties: Depression is cognitive to violence, late suicide, and eating disorders. The Eating Disorder Foundation asserts that "eating disorders are not just about food and weight. They are an attempt and use food intake and weight control to manage emotional conflicts that actually have little or nothing to do with Essay gullivers travel or weight.
Approximately 1 million U. And socioemotional of mild or severe depression in earlier developmental stages should not be minimized.
Late Adulthood changes
The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's Disease. The report concludes that early intervention is imperative to prevent rapid declines in cognitive functioning. The CDC reports that researchers are uncovering more and more evidence that some risk factors for heart disease and stroke, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and low levels of the vitamin folate, a water-soluble B vitamin, may increase the risk of the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's disease.
Also, evidence that healthy physical, mental and social activities are protective factors against Essay favorite personality dementia is growing.
Emotional Changes Emotions and stability vary widely in late adulthood.
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Theorist Erik Erikson devised a framework for development based on psychosocial stages, and he defined the last stage of life as a tension between integrity and despair. Individuals either come to accept their Analysing and synthesising as having meaning and integrity, or they contemplate their life as unproductive and unfulfilling - feeling despair.
In actuality, developmental researchers believe that most individuals fall somewhere in between these two extremes. Many researchers also strongly believe that how individuals cope with aging depends a great deal on their social and cultural contexts.
Late Adulthood changes
For example, most of today's elderly were raised beforeduring segregation. During those years, African-Americans were poor and less educated, which means that they are most likely living today in poverty. That directly influences their access to proper health care, nursing homes, senior centers and other social services.
In all cases, whatever one's race, ethnicity or socioeconomic class, developmentalists emphasize the need for those in late adulthood to stay active and interested in many activities, to take classes, volunteer, and participate in the arts. Research shows that those who stay active and connected to others report more Child abuse research essay of life, less hopelessness, and overall, keep a sense of vitality in their lives.
Late Adulthood Development Psychology
And by maintaining close friendships, the Gilgamesh essay dreams also cope better when a spouse dies, which is a major stressor in later adulthood. If you find the physical, cognitive and emotional changes that take place in later adulthood interesting, you should consider a career in developmental psychology.
Because of the growing numbers of people living longer today, the demand for those knowledgeable in this area of psychology is expected to grow.